Mastering Testing Techniques: White Box and Grey Box Testing Explained

In software development, testing is an important level in the procedure of the launch of any application or software. So, the software engineer uses the testing techniques and validates the high-quality of the software, which also provides a possibility for the developer to improve the product.

Every application is advanced in some high- or low-level language. This means that a few codes have been written for its development, so based on the knowledge of the tester about the application, there’s a category of testing, specifically White Box Testing and Grey Box Testing. In this blog, we are to tell you about white box testing and grey box testing. Let’s start with a few basics.

What is White Box Testing

QA engineers use white box testing to determine how internal systems work. They get access to code, data structures, and algorithms used in the system, which is unrestricted.

To determine the inner system workings or determine the cause of any errors, white box testing is performed. This testing gives you a key benefit by assessing the code coverage.

Advantages of white box testing

Disadvantages of white box testing

White Box Testing Types

There are various types of white box testing. These testing types are used to assess the functionality and performance of software applications, code blocks, or particular software program applications. Some of the commonly used white box testing types are given below.

Unit testing is a conventional type of white box testing that involves testing units or components of the software application. It is carried at the individual module or function level. The aim of unit testing is to test the smallest unit of the system.

 Integration testing is performed to test the various modules or components of the system. The aim of integration testing is to ensure that all components of the system work well together to fulfil the goal.

System testing is performed on the complete system. It is used to check the system’s functionality, performance, and security features.

Acceptance testing is performed to ensure system meet the user needs. It is regularly performed by purchasers or end customers.

What is Grey Box Testing

Grey box testing is an inventive approach that blends the traits of black box and white box testing. The method includes a testing method wherein testers possess some level of knowledge about the internal workings of systems. This enables QA engineers to access a few code segments and records structures to assist in the testing process.

This form of testing is beneficial in conditions where the tester has to inspect the interaction among numerous systems components or specific features/modules. Grey box testing offers a sensible method that permits testers to improve the practical conditions that would not be possible to acquire with black box testing.

Advantages of Grey Box testing

Disadvantages of Grey Box testing

•            Testing all input and put streams takes a long time;

•            Limitations in code analysis.

Grey Box Testing Types

Several Grey box testing types are available. However, there are a few considerable ones that are commonly used in grey box testing.

 Decision table testing is a grey box testing method that is used to test complicated commercial enterprise common sense. The tester creates a table with all possible combinations of inputs and puts. The table incorporates rules that specify the expected puts for every mixture of inputs. The tester then executes the check examples, testing whether the actual puts suit the predicted puts.

 For example, let’s bear in mind a mortgage software system. The tester could generate a choice table with columns for special inputs, which includes the applicant’s credit score, income, and employment status. The table might additionally incorporate regulations specifying whether or not the mortgage needs to be accepted or rejected for every mixture of inputs.

State transition testing is a grey box testing technique that is used to check the conduct of a software program device because it moves from one country to another. The tester creates a state diagram that shows the distinctive states of the system and the transitions among them. The tester then creates test examples to ensure that the system behaves correctly during each transition.

For example, keep in mind a vending system. The state diagram might show the distinctive states of the system, which include idle, cash inserted, product decided on, and product distributed. The tester might then create test cases to make sure that the systems behave correctly at some point of every transition, which includes when money is inserted, a product is selected, and a product is disbursed.

Exploratory testing is type of grey box testing. The tester explores the systems, identifying defects as they’re encountered. The tester data the defects and reports them to the development group. Exploratory testing is an effective way to find defects that won’t be diagnosed through different testing strategies.

 For example, allow’s bear in mind a mobile app that permits customers to book flights. The tester would set up the app and discover its functions, which include looking for tests, choosing seats, and making payments. The tester would then pick errors as they are encountered and record them to the development group.

White box testing vs grey box testing

Here are table that tells you difference between White box testing and grey box testing−

KeyWhite Box TestingGrey Box Testing
DefinitionWhite box testing is the form of testing in which the tester is aware of the internal functionality of the software, and as a result, it performs the testing on a practical basis.Grey box testing is the type of testing in which the tester is not aware of the internal functionality of the system or software, so testing is mainly centred on the number one ability of the system to check internal functionality.
Also known asAlong with number one ability testing, the internal ability is also under white box testing, so it is also known as clear box testing, structural testing or code-based testing.Grey box testing covers the number one functionality testing of an application; consequently, testing is also termed Translucent testing.
PerformerWhite box testing calls for expertise approximately internal ability of the application, so it’s miles commonly accomplished by using testers and developers who have such knowledge.In the case of grey box testing, no such understanding is required, so it’s usually completed by end users in conjunction with testers and developers.
Basis of testingAs testers are aware of the inner functionality of the application, they put together the test information and tried to check almost every code state of affairs through these test examples.In Grey box testing, the number one functionality expertise is provided via high-stage statistics that go with the flow diagrams and database diagrams, so these are the basis for this type of testing.
Execution timeIt is obvious that as internal give-up to cease functionality along with primary functionality is examined in this type of testing, the time of execution for this testing is more as evaluated to Grey box testing.Only primary testing is examined on this kind of testing; consequently, execution time for this testing is much less as compared to White box testing.
AutomationAs most of this form of testing is based on internally implemented code, automation of this testing is possible. Additionally, algorithms for this testing could be developed.In case of Grey box testing, no publicity to the internal code, hence opportunity of automation of this testing is much less as compared to that of White box testing.


 White Box Testing & Grey Box Testing are vital software Testing techniques that serve different purposes. While white box testing is beneficial for identifying defects in the application’s code, black box testing is beneficial for testing the application’s ability and user interface. Grey box testing is a precious software program testing method that mixes elements of each black box testing and white box testing.

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